essential needs
Means of Transportation to Work by Race/Ethnicity

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau

What does this measure?

The type of transportation used on a daily basis by workers over the age of 16 who commute to work, expressed as a percentage of all workers who do not work at home, by race/ethnicity.

Why is this important?

Patterns of transportation usage impact environmental and transportation planning. These patterns may also reflect issues of poverty, location of employment, the availability and quality of public transit, local land use and environmental policies, or lifestyle choices of residents.

How is Norfolk County doing?

In 2017-21, white residents of Norfolk County reported the highest levels of driving alone to work (77%), versus public transportation (12%), carpooling (5%), or using another form of transportation, including motorcycles, bicycles, taxis or walking (6%). In comparison, Asian residents had significantly higher levels of public transportation use at 25%. Asian and Hispanic residents reported the highest levels of carpooling (12% and 10% respectively) and Hispanics reported the highest level of another form of transportation at 10%.

The use of public transportation among Asian and white residents in Norfolk County was higher than the state, while public transportation use among African American and Hispanic residents was similar to the state. Among comparison counties, Norfolk had the highest rates of public transportation use among all race ethnicities and Essex County had the highest rates of people driving alone.

Why do these disparities exist?

Historic and current policies and systems, from racist housing policies to employment discrimination to education systems that fail to equitably serve all populations, have prevented people of color from fully participating in our economy, locking them out of economic opportunity. This can result in less ability to afford a private vehicle. In addition, people of color tend to live in urbanized areas at higher rates, where public transit systems are more available.

Notes about the data

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). Data for this indicator are expected to be released annually in December.

filtered snapshot

Means of Transportation to Work by Race/Ethnicity
CarpooledDrove AlonePublic transportationTaxicab, motorcycle, bicycle, walked, or other means
Brookline11%**32%33%*23%*
Arlington, Middlesex County13%***52%29%*7%***
Cambridge, Middlesex County5%**21%35%39%
Everett, Middlesex County9%***70%*15%**6%***
Newton, Middlesex County13%*62%16%*10%**
Norfolk County12%55%25%8%
Essex County10%*78%6%*6%*
Middlesex County11%64%15%10%
Massachusetts11%61%17%11%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Rate is percent of those who do not work at home. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Workers by Means of Transportation, by Race/Ethnicity
CarpooledDrove AlonePublic transportationTaxicab, motorcycle, bicycle, walked, or other means
Brookline534**1,5421,592*1,126*
Arlington, Middlesex County349***1,417794*184***
Cambridge, Middlesex County511**2,0473,4173,862
Everett, Middlesex County159***1,306*286**111***
Newton, Middlesex County728*3,550942*551**
Norfolk County4,70921,1649,5113,150
Essex County1,328*10,504816*827*
Middlesex County9,90459,45814,1818,982
Massachusetts24,167130,34136,44124,307

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Means of Transportation to Work by Race/Ethnicity, 2017-21
CarpooledDrove AlonePublic transportationTaxicab, motorcycle, bicycle, walked, or other means
Brookline11%**32%33%*23%*
Arlington, Middlesex County13%***52%29%*7%***
Cambridge, Middlesex County5%**21%35%39%
Everett, Middlesex County9%***70%*15%**6%***
Newton, Middlesex County13%*62%16%*10%**
Norfolk County12%55%25%8%
Essex County10%*78%6%*6%*
Middlesex County11%64%15%10%
Massachusetts11%61%17%11%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Rate is percent of those who do not work at home. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Workers by Means of Transportation, by Race/Ethnicity, 2017-21
CarpooledDrove AlonePublic transportationTaxicab, motorcycle, bicycle, walked, or other means
Brookline534**1,5421,592*1,126*
Arlington, Middlesex County349***1,417794*184***
Cambridge, Middlesex County511**2,0473,4173,862
Everett, Middlesex County159***1,306*286**111***
Newton, Middlesex County728*3,550942*551**
Norfolk County4,70921,1649,5113,150
Essex County1,328*10,504816*827*
Middlesex County9,90459,45814,1818,982
Massachusetts24,167130,34136,44124,307

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.


INDICATORS TREND
Change in Total Population 1
Increasing
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity 1
Increasing
Language Diversity 1
Increasing
Foreign-Born Population 1
Increasing
Population by Age 1
Increasing
People with Disabilities 1
Increasing
Voter Registration -1
Decreasing
Voter Participation 1
Increasing
Arrest Rate by Race/Ethnicity 0
Maintaining
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Total Jobs 10 Not Applicable*
Unemployment Rate 10 Not Applicable*
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity 0
Maintaining
Living Wage 10 Not Applicable*
Median Household Income 0
Maintaining
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity 0
Maintaining
Income in Relation to Poverty Level -1
Decreasing
People Living in Poverty 1
Increasing
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity -1
Decreasing
People Living in Poverty by Age -1
Decreasing
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity 1
Increasing
Females Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity -1
Decreasing
Seniors Living in Poverty 1
Increasing
Share of Workers who are Professionals by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Access to Financial Services by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Student Performance on Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup 10 Not Applicable*
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity 1
Increasing
Overall Housing Cost Burden -1
Decreasing
Median Home Value 0
Maintaining
Median Home Value by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Cost of Homeownership 1
Increasing
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Cost of Renting 1
Increasing
Cost of Rent by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Households Receiving SNAP 1
Increasing
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity -1
Decreasing
Food Insecurity 10 Not Applicable*
Households Without Vehicles 1
Increasing
Means of Transportation to Work by Race/Ethnicity 0
Maintaining
Protected Land 10 Not Applicable*
Percent of Days with Good Air Quality 10 Not Applicable*
Early Prenatal Care 10 Not Applicable*
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Drug Poisoning Mortality Rate 10 Not Applicable*
Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions 10 Not Applicable*
People 65 or Older Living Alone 1
Increasing
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity 1
Increasing
Arrest Rate by Race/Ethnicity 0
Maintaining
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity 0
Maintaining
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity 0
Maintaining
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity -1
Decreasing
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity 1
Increasing
Females Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity -1
Decreasing
Share of Workers who are Professionals by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Student Performance on Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup 10 Not Applicable*
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity 1
Increasing
Median Home Value by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Cost of Rent by Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity -1
Decreasing
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity 10 Not Applicable*



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