racial equity
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau

What does this measure?

The percentage change of residents within a geographic area, broken down by racial and ethnic groups.

Why is this important?

Population measures provide insight on the changing size and face of communities. The racial and ethnic composition of a community can offer insight into its levels of diversity, which can bring with it challenges and opportunities.

How is Brookline doing?

Brookline has grown more diverse since 2007-11. Its Asian population grew fastest, gaining 19%, followed by a 14% growth among the Latino population. The African American population was too small to make a reliable estimation and the white population decreased -3%. The white population still makes up a large majority, with 43,900 people.

Massachusetts and the nation experienced similar changes, but compared to Brookline, the state and nation had larger increases in Asian and Latino populations.

White residents were the largest racial group in every comparison locality in 2017-21. Everett experienced a larger increase in its Hispanic population than Brookline, at 98%. Brookline experienced the slowest growth among Asians compared to all selected localities. The white population declined in all comparison localities, with the exception of Cambridge which experienced 2% growth.

Why do these disparities exist?

The composition of the U.S. population is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse as people of color grow in representation and will be a majority within the next two decades. Latino, Asian and multiracial groups are experiencing the largest growth with Latinos' rapid increase caused largely by immigration. Latino immigrants who enter the U.S. tend to be younger and of child-bearing age. Latinas in the U.S. have higher fertility rates than Black and white women. Black, Latino and multiracial populations are also experiencing higher rates of births relative to deaths, while whites are experiencing the opposite.

Notes about the data

Rate is percentage change from 2007-11. The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined 5 years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census.

The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

snapshot_single
Change in Total Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2017-21
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Brookline19%45%*14%-3%
Arlington, Middlesex County100%32%**53%*-6%
Cambridge, Middlesex County50%3%36%2%
Everett, Middlesex County189%*15%98%-21%
Newton, Middlesex County35%19%*3%-6%
Norfolk County49%38%69%-3%
Essex County16%45%51%1%
Middlesex County51%25%42%-2%
Massachusetts39%18%42%-2%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Rate is percentage change from 2007-11. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Total Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2017-21
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Brookline11,1521,563*4,15343,875
Arlington, Middlesex County6,3011,541**2,312*34,801
Cambridge, Middlesex County21,36112,43510,26572,178
Everett, Middlesex County3,949*6,46614,80723,312
Newton, Middlesex County13,3482,528*3,59965,627
Norfolk County84,48151,67735,978536,335
Essex County27,58235,729178,263607,416
Middlesex County206,26883,523134,4621,183,913
Massachusetts480,944511,394864,2025,211,704

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.






INDICATORS
Change in Total Population
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity
Language Diversity
Foreign-Born Population
Population by Age
People with Disabilities
Voter Registration
Voter Participation
Arrest Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Change in Total Jobs
Unemployment Rate
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Living Wage
Median Household Income
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity
Income in Relation to Poverty Level
People Living in Poverty
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty by Age
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
Females Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
Seniors Living in Poverty
Share of Workers who are Professionals by Race/Ethnicity
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity
Access to Financial Services by Race/Ethnicity
Student Performance on Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Overall Housing Cost Burden
Median Home Value
Median Home Value by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Renting
Cost of Rent by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Food Insecurity
Households Without Vehicles
Means of Transportation to Work by Race/Ethnicity
Protected Land
Percent of Days with Good Air Quality
Early Prenatal Care
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity
Drug Poisoning Mortality Rate
Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions
People 65 or Older Living Alone
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity
Arrest Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
Females Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
Share of Workers who are Professionals by Race/Ethnicity
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity
Student Performance on Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Median Home Value by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Rent by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity



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